Knowledge and ontology supported metadata management for the Grid
According to Mario Campolargo [CAM06], obtaining knowledge from data and knowledge management is intended to be one of the main focuses of 7FP. Our experience in this field has been obtained during the Pellucid project, in which we proposed and implemented organizational memory based on ontological approach and strategies for knowledge reuse with the help of software agents [LAC04]-[SLO07]. For the purpose of semi-automatic workflow construction for grid applications (in K-Wf Grid) the distributed grid organizational memory subsystem has been developed (http://gom.kwfgrid.net/) , that contains different kind of ontologies (generic and application domain specific), most notably: application, resource, data, service and workflow ontologies ([KRY06-1]-[KRY07]). Algorithms for knowledge extension (based on ontology interoperability and alignment) are being developed [SLO05]-[SLO06-2].
Our future work in this field is planned toward further development of ontology evolution methods and interoperability for collaboration of dynamically created virtual organizations.
Cited literature for Knowledge and ontology supported metadata management for the Grid
- [CAM07] M. Campolargo, EU Strategy on the development of e-Infrastructure in FP7, HEP Networking, Grid and Digital Divide issues for global e-Science, Cracow, 9th October 2006
- [LAC04] Laclavik, M., Zoltan, B., Hluchy, L., Slota, R. Krawczyk, K., Dziewierz, M., Distributed Knowledge Management Based on Software Agents and Ontology, in: Wyrzykowski, R., Dongarra, J., Paprzycki, M., Wa¶niewski, J. (Eds.), Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics. 5th International Conference, PPAM 2003, Czêstochowa, Poland, September 2003, LNCS, no. 3019, Springer, 2004, pp. 694-699.
- [SLO04] Slota, R., Majewska, M., Dziewierz, M., Krawczyk, K., Laclavik, M., Balogh, Z., Hluchy, L., Kitowski, J. Lambert, S., Ontology Assisted Access to Document Repositories in Public Sector Organizations, in: Wyrzykowski, R., Dongarra, J., Paprzycki, M., Wasniewski, J. (Eds.), Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics. 5th International Conference, PPAM 2003, Czêstochowa, Poland, September 2003, LNCS, no. 3019, Springer, 2004, pp. 700-705.
- [MAJ04] M. Majewska, K. Krawczyk, R. Slota, J. Kitowski, L. Hluchy, S. Lambert, Information Searching for an Experience Management Platform of the UE Pellucid Project, TASK QUARTERLY. Scientific Bulletin of Academic Centre in Gdansk, TASK Publishing, 2004, in: P. Doerffer, J. Rybicki (Eds.), vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 513-523.
- [KRA04] Krawczyk, K., Majewska, M., Dziewierz, M., Slota, R., Balogh, Z., Kitowski, J., Lambert, S., Reuse of Organisational Experience Harnessing Software Agents, in: Bubak, M., van Albada, G. D., Sloot, P. M. A., Dongarra, J. J. (Eds.), Computational Science - ICCS 2004. 4th International Conference, Kraków, Poland, June 2004, LNCS, no. 3038, vol. III, Springer, 2004, pp. 583-590.
- [SLO07] Slota R., Majewska M., Kitowski J. Lambert S., Laclavik M., Hluchy L., and Viano G., Evaluation of Experience-based Support for Organizational Employees, in: Jie Lu, Da Ruan, Guangquan Zhang (Eds.), E-Service Intelligence. Methodologies, Technologies and Applications, Series: Studies in Computational Intelligence , Vol. 37, Springer, 2007, pp. 411-434 (book chapter).
- [KRY06-1] B. Kryza, J. Pieczykolan, M. Bubak, M. Majewska, R. Slota, L. Hluchy, J. Kitowski, Managing Semantic Metadata in K-Wf Grid with Grid Organizational Memory, in: M. Bubak, M. Tura³a, K. Wiatr (Eds.), Proceedings of Cracow Grid Workshop - CGW'05, November 20-23 2005, ACC-Cyfronet UST, 2006, Kraków, pp. 66-73.
- [KRY06-2] B. Kryza, M. Majewska, R. Slota, J. Kitowski, Unifying Grid Metadata Representations Through Ontologies, in: Roman Wyrzykowski, Jack Dongarra, Norbert Meyer, Jerzy Wasniewski (Eds.), Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics: 6th International Conference, PPAM 2005, Poznan, Poland, September 11-14, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3911, Springer, 2006, pp. 683 - 690
- [KRY06-3] B. Kryza, J. Pieczykolan J. Kitowski: Grid Organizational Memory: A Versatile Solution for Ontology Management in the Grid. 2nd Intl Conf. on e-Science and Grid Computing, Dec. 4-6, 2006, Amsterdam, IEEE Comp. Society Press.
- [KRY07] B. Kryza, R. Slota, M. Majewska, Jan Pieczykolan, Jacek Kitowski. Grid Organizational Memory - Provision of a High-Level Grid Abstraction Layer Supported by Ontology Alignment. Future Generation Computer Systems, 2007 (in press).
- [SLO05] R. Slota, J. Zieba, M. Majewska, B. Kryza, J. Kitowski, Ontology Alignment and Ontology Similarity for Extension of Service Ontology in Grid Environment, in: M. Bubak, M. Tura³a, K. Wiatr (Eds.), Proceedings of Cracow Grid Workshop - CGW'05, November 20-23 2005, ACC-Cyfronet UST, 2006, Kraków, pp. 41-48.
- [SLO06-1] R. S³ota, J. Ziêba, M. Janusz, J. Kitowski, OnTal: A tool for ontology extension in knowledge-based grid systems, Proc. of Cracow Grid Workshop, CGW 2006, ACK Cyfronet-AGH, Cracow, in press.
- [KUT06] M. Kuta, S. Polak, B. Palacz, T. Mi³o¶, R. S³ota, J. Kitowski, TeToN - a Jena-based Tool for text-to-ontology Approach, Proc. of Cracow Grid Workshop, CGW 2006, ACK Cyfronet-AGH, Cracow, in press.
- [SLO06-2] R. Slota, J. Zieba, B. Kryza, J. Kitowski, Knowledge Evolution Supporting Automatic Workflow Composition, 2nd Intl Conf. on e-Science and Grid Computing, Dec. 4-6, 2006, Amsterdam, IEEE Comp. Society Press.
Grid Virtual Organizations
In the relatively short history of the Grid computing, Virtual Organizations have been understood in a variety of ways, from low level account management support to high level business process modeling. In any case, Virtual Organizations are about sharing private resources of collaborating partners in order to achieve a goal which otherwise would be much more difficult to achieve. In order to allow heterogeneous partners to form and take part in such virtual collaborations, their resources that they are willing to share must be properly virtualized. These include data, services and domain knowledge. Also security and trust issues must be taken into consideration especially when dealing with business entities.
Recently, a Grid Virtual Organization Semantic Framework is being developed (within the scope of GREDIA project), which will enable both business and societal partners to collaborate together using their resources to challenge emerging market opportunities [KRY06-4] with the focus on multimedia and banking segments. Extension of this functionality of the framework will allow data delegation for remote (grid) processing with real-time processing requirements. This Virtual Organization environment is being developed (in int.eu.grid project [DUT06-1]) for an interactive, real-time High Energy Physics application, that requires dispatching processing of high frequency events generated in ATLAS detector to remote Grid sites for processing [SKI06-1], [PIE07-1].
Cited literature for Grid Virtual Organizations
- [KRY06-4] B. Kryza, L.Dutka, R. Slota, J. Pieczykolan and J. Kitowski, GVOSF: Grid Virtual Organization Semantic Framework for Knowledge Support, Proc. of Cracow Grid Workshop, CGW 2006, ACK Cyfronet-AGH, Cracow, in press.
- [DUT06-1] L. Dutka, K. Korcyl, K. Zielinski, J. Kitowski, R. Slota, W. Funika, K. Balos, L. Skital, B. Kryza. Interactive European Grid Environment for HEP Application with Real Time Requirements. Proc. of Cracow Grid Workshop, CGW 2006, ACK Cyfronet-AGH, Cracow, in press.
- [SKI06-1] L. Skital, L. Dutka, R. Slota, K. Korcyl, M. Janusz, J. Kitowski Virtual Organization Approach for Running HEP Applications in Grid Environment. Proc. of Cracow Grid Workshop, CGW 2006, ACK Cyfronet-AGH, Cracow, in press.
- [PIE07-1] J. Pieczykolan, L. Dutka, K. Korcyl, J. Kitowski. Real-time Grid dispatcher for High Energy Physics experiments. In preparation for ICCS 2007.
Semantically supported Grid interoperability
Interoperability between two or more Grid environments means that all crucial components of each Grid middleware can communicate in order to transparently execute users' requests using resources available through the middleware of the interoperating infrastructures. Thus one of the key issues and obstacles at present is how to refer to heterogeneous resources managed by different Grid middleware systems. We believe that semantics, for instance ontologies, used to represent metadata about these resources will foster much more flexible integration of these Grid middleware layers in the most transparent way. Higher level metadata of resources in the Grid is in fact crucial when trying to create and manage Virtual Organizations spanning over multiple heterogeneous Grid middleware systems, especially when other issues such as cultural heterogeneity take place [KRY06-5].
We have already made some analysis of possibilities of realizing this vision. We've proposed a Grid Abstraction Layer for providing interoperability between gLite and Grid Operating System which addressed such Grid use cases as job submission and data management [KRY06-6].
Cited literature for Semantically supported Grid interoperability
- [KRY06-5] B. Kryza, M. Majewska, R. Slota, J. Kitowski, Unifying Grid Metadata Representations Through Ontologies, in: Roman Wyrzykowski, Jack Dongarra, Norbert Meyer, Jerzy Wasniewski (Eds.), Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics: 6th International Conference, PPAM 2005, Poznan, Poland, September 11-14, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, LNCS, no. 3911, Springer, 2006, pp. 683 - 690
- [KRY06-6] B. Kryza, L. Skital, J. Kitowski, M. Li, T. Itagaki, Analysis of Interoperability Issues Betwen EGEE and VEGA Grid Infrastructure, in: M. Gerndt, D. Kranzlmuller (Eds.), Proc. of High Performance Computing and Communications, Second International Conference, HPCC 2006, Munich, Germany, September 2006, LNCS, no. 4208, Springer 2006, pp. 793-802
Data management in the Grid
Data are the most important assets in every activity. Its availability and efficient access are crucial problems of contemporary science and business. One of the achievements in this field is Component-Expert technology that has been applied for proper selection of Storage Elements in the Grid (in Crossgrid, [DUT02]-[DUT04] as well as for service selection in semi-automatic construction of workflows (in K-Wf Grid, [DUT05-1]. To support this selection, another activity in this field on storage modelling and simulation of data access time for different storage systems (like HSM and secondary storage, [NIK02-1]-[NIK04-2]) has been initiated. Algorithms for virtualization of the storage systems and for automatic data replication in the grid environment have also been developed ([NIK04-2]-[SLO06]).
At present our focus is on development of WS and WSRF type services for estimating time of data access in mass storage systems as well as on ontology of secondary and tertiary storage systems, with the intension to be interoperable with CIM ontology. For that purpose algorithms for translation of CIM/MOF to OWL ontology are being developed [MAJ06].
Cited literature for Data management in the Grid
- [DUT02] Dutka, L., Kitowski, J., Application of Component-Expert Technology for Selection of Data-Handlers in CrossGrid, Proc. 9th EuroPVM/MPI Intl.Conf., 2002, LNCS no. 2474, LNCS, Springer, 2002, pp. 25-32.
- [STO03] K. Stockinger, H. Stockinger, L. Dutka, R. Slota, D. Nikolow, J.Kitowski, Access Cost Estimation for Unified Grid Storage Systems, 4th Intl. Workshop Grid2003, Phoenix/Arizona, 2003, IEEE Computer Society Press, 2003.
- [DUT04] Dutka, L., Slota, R., Nikolow, D., Kitowski, J. , Optimization of Data Access for Grid Environment, in: Rivera, F. F., et al. (Eds.), 1st European Across Grids Conference, 2003, LNCS no. 2970, Springer, 2004, pp. 93-102.
- [DUT05-1] L. Dutka, B. Kryza, K. Krawczyk, R. Slota, M. Majewska, L. Hluchy, J. Kitowski, Component-Expert Architecture for Supporting Grid Workflow Construction Based on Knowledge, Innovation and the Knowledge Economy. Issues, Applications, Case Studies, IOS Press, 2005, pp. 239-246.
- [NIK02-1] Nikolow, D., Slota, R., Kitowski, J., Benchmarking Tertiary Storage Systems with File Fragmentation, 4th Intl. Conf. PPAM 2001, LNCS, no. 2328, Springer, 2002, pp. 162-169.
- [NIK02-2] Nikolow, D., Slota, R., Dziewierz, M., Kitowski, J., Access Time Estimation for Tertiary Storage Systems, Proc. Euro-Par 2002 Intl. Conf. LNCS, no. 2400, Springer, 2002, pp. 873-880.
- [NIK04-1] Nikolow, D., Slota, R., Kitowski, J., Gray Box Based Data Access Time Estimation for Tertiary Storage in Grid Environment, 5th Intl.Conf, PPAM 2003, LNCS, no. 3019, Springer, 2004, pp. 182-188.
- [DUT05-2] L. Dutka, J. Kitowski, Stochastic Approach for Secondary Storage Data Access Cost, Proc. of Advances in Grid Computing - EGC 2005 European Grid Conference, LNCS no. 3470, Springer, 2005, pp. 796-804.
- [KUT06] M. Kuta, D. Nikolow, R. Slota, J. Kitowski, Data Access Time Estimation for the CASTOR HSM System, 6th Intl. Conf., PPAM 2005, LNCS, no. 3911, Springer, 2006, pp. 148 - 155
- [NIK04-2] Nikolow, D., Slota, R., Kitowski, J., Skital, L., Virtual Storage System for the Grid Environment, Computational Science - ICCS 2004. 4th Intl.Conf., LNCS, no. 3036, vol. I, Springer, 2004, pp. 458-461.
- [SLO06] R. Slota, L. Skital, D. Nikolow, J. Kitowski, Algorithms for Automatic Data Replication in Grid Environment, 6th Intl.Conf., PPAM 2005, LNCS, 3911, Springer, 2006, pp. 707 - 714.
- [DUT06-2] Dutka, L, Palacz, B., Kitowski, J, IEBS - Intelligent ExaByte Storage based on Grid Approach, Proc. of Cracow Grid Workshop, CGW 2006, ACK Cyfronet-AGH, Cracow, in press.
- [MAJ06] M. Majewska, B, Kryza, J.Kitowski, On Translating Common Information Model to OWL Ontology, Proc. of Cracow Grid Workshop, CGW 2006, ACK Cyfronet-AGH, Cracow, in press.